Peering (which can be translated into French into an interconnection or interconnection network at the same height ] refers, in the field of networks, to the exchange of internet traffic with peers) by other operators or content providers. Thus, in the case of balanced trade, peering can be free and result in compensation when the trade imbalance exceeds a certain threshold (for example. B a ratio of 2.5). As with other types of business-to-business relationships, peering disputes can be brought to the appropriate courts. In France, for example, in 2012, the Competition Authority notably spoke about a dispute between Orange and Cogent and ARCEP conducted an administrative investigation in 2013 into the interconnection conditions between Free and Google . In this second case, several networks each install a single physical link to an exchange point (Internet Exchange Point) that allows peer agreements to be grouped on that link (Stern network). This mutualisation allows, in particular, to pool with many players whose individual transport is not very high, but whose number is ultimately a significant traffic. Another technique for generating independently decodable resource blocks includes encoding a stream of information bits into low-density parity-check (LDPC) codeblocks having high ratios of inward peering parity bits. As has already been said, peering at exchange points is in principle part of bilateral agreements (one network is linked to another for the exchange of traffic, while each can agree at the same time as another, etc.). This requires negotiations (or at least discussions) with any existing network at a point of exchange for a newcomer, and, if necessary, with any new network that arrives at those that already exist.
A peering agreement is an agreement between two network administrators to share data routing responsibilities across multiple networks. Peering is a mainstay of the global Internet and large data mobility systems. The modalities for the introduction of peering agreements by each network may be written or unwritten and contain elements that limit minimum speeds, maximum speeds, number of lines, mandatory redundancy links (several points of exchange, even countries, even continents), traffic conditions one way or the other, etc.