88.The United Kingdom also does not appear to question the validity of the treaties. In 1979, the government spokesman explicitly relied on the 1960 agreements when he explained why they recognized only one government in Cyprus. (58) In 1987, Baroness Young, Minister of State for the Foreign and Commonwealth Office, confirmed to the House of Commons Foreign Affairs Committee: “We believe that the 1960 guarantee contract is still valid, in which we are guarantors and where we continue to play this role… ». (59) More recently, the head of the South European division of the Foreign and Commonwealth Office was sworn in on 25 April 1994. The Commissioner for Domestic Revenues, ex parte Resat Caglar, asked the Court to take into account “the obligations of the United Kingdom arising from the guarantee contract”. (60) On 23 July 1974, the Greek government resigned from the athens colonels who had been behind the fall of Makario; On the same day, the National Guard dethroned Sampson from his post. On 16 August, a ceasefire agreement was reached, until Turkish forces occupied 37% of the island in the north. Prisoners of war were exchanged, but each side claimed that many people had not been taken into account: 2,700 Greek Cypriots and 240 Turkish Cypriots. The Turkish troops stayed. The conditions of approval and adaptations of the treaties on which the Union is based and which imply such authorisation are agreed between the Member States and the candidate country.
This Agreement is subject to ratification by all States Parties in accordance with their respective constitutional requirements. EOKA-B, founded in 1971, continued EOKA`s terrorist activities and Enosis`s demands. The conflict escalated on 15 July 1974, when the Cypriot National Guard, under the command of the officers of the Greek army, supplanted Makario and installed the pro-Enosis Nikos Sampson. Five days later, a force of 6,000 Turkish troops armed with tanks landed on the northern coast of Cyprus, supposedly to restore civilian rule in accordance with a 1960 agreement authorizing Turkish, Greek or British military interventions in the event of a threat to the democratic order of the island. Violent fighting broke out between the Turkish army and the Cypriot National Guard, and many areas of the island reported inter-communal conflicts. Each community accused the other of atrocities. 94.The main points of the future Constitution of Cyprus were in the basic structure agreed in Zurich, supplemented by the London conference in 1959. (68) As noted above, the conference also adopted “agreed measures”, which include the provision that a Joint Commission in Cyprus will finalise a draft Constitution with these articles and the relevant provisions of the other agreements reached in Zurich and London. The joint committee should be made up of a representative from each of the parties to the London Agreement (with the exception of the United Kingdom).
It took the Joint Commission 14 months to negotiate the draft Constitution and made some changes to the agreements agreed at the London conference. The project was signed on April 6, 1960 in Nicosia. Article 170 states in a relevant part: “The Republic of Greece, the Republic of Turkey and the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland, by mutual agreement on reasonable terms, grant the most favoured nation for all agreements, whatever their type.” This allows for the implementation of Article 23 of the basic structure. It should be remembered that the issue of its importance was raised at the meeting of the three foreign ministers in London on 12 February 1959. (79) In response to a question from Lord Perth, the foreign ministers of Turkey and Greece stated: “The intention was to exclude bilateral agreements more favourable between Cyprus and other powers than the three powers and to prevent Greece or Turkey from establishing a more favourable position for Cyprus than the others – Greece – which is a kind of economic enosis.” The inclusion of the RC in the EU would be doubly contrary to the letter and spirit of this provision.